A millimeter worm that saved a country’s economy

A millimeter worm that saved a country's economy

Farmers have been dependent on small predators to eliminate insects in crops before the discovery of chemical pesticides. The same practice has now emerged in a new form. In Southeast Asia, millions of farmers in biodiversity-rich forests are dependent on cassava cultivation. This cash crop is also cultivated by small farmers with one to two hectares of land and large farmers with thousands of hectares.Cassava starch is used to make plastic and glue. When cassava was first brought from South America, farmers here cultivated it without the help of any insecticide. From 2008, it started getting insects and crop wasting. To make up for the losses, farmers started infiltrating the forest land to take a little more crop.Chris Vaikhais, a biocontrol specialist at Beijing’s Institute for Plant Protection, says that forest harvesting in some areas became very fast. Cambodia has the highest forest harvesting rate. Malibu insects affected the livelihood of cassava farmers as well as the economy of the countries of the region. The price of alternative sources of starch, such as maize and potatoes, rose. Thailand is the number one exporter of cassava starch in the world. There, its prices increased threefold.”When a worm reduces yields by 60 to 80 percent, you will get a big shock,” says Waikhais. The solution was to search for a millimeter-long parasitic wasp (Anagirus lopezi), a natural enemy of mill bugs in South America. This small wasp lays eggs only on cassava mealybug. In late 2009, the wasp was released into the cassava fields of Thailand and started functioning as soon as it arrived. There is no detailed information on how fast the mills clean up the population of mealybugs. In 2010, millions of wasps were released from airplanes all over Thailand. Soon their effect began to show.One millimeter hunterIn the 1980s, the same things were left in West Africa. He immediately reduced the number of Milibug from 80 to 90 percent. In less than three years, these wasps spread over two lakh square kilometers in southwestern Nigeria. They are easily found in the cassava fields there. Such intervention is called biocontrol. You find a natural predator and leave it in the fields for insects to eat. Farmers in 26 countries of the Asia-Pacific region benefited from $ 14.6 billion to $ 19.5 billion annually. “A millimeter washer solved the major problem of the global starch market,” says Waikhais.Farmers have known for centuries the benefits of being the right pest. Scientist Rose Butenhus of the Wainland Research and Innovation Center in Ontario, Canada, says that bio-control has been in place for thousands of years. It is a joke to consider it new. The question is, if bio-control can be so effective, then why is it not used to eliminate harmful insects? What if it doesn’t work? And why are researchers insisting on changes in it?Solution or problem?Pre-Colombian Meso-Americans considered Ken Todd (Dadur or elder paddock) between life and death. These toads made a poison that caused hallucinations. Meso-American priests used it to communicate with dead ancestors. People of the Maya civilization worshiped snakes and birds, which is also seen in Meso-American art. Maya and other indigenous communities have also given Ken Todd a place in their craft. Toads living both on water and on land and in the rain where necessary for the health of crops.The development of tadpoles and toadlets from eggs indicated the onset of the rainy season. His coming out of the water was like coming out of the hull. Ken Todd kept away insects in crops. They would lick insect-moths and small insects in maize fields and grain stocks. Ken Todd’s poison hunter protects him from enemies. That poison is so strong that even if negligence can kill a human being. The indigenous people of Meso-America understood this duplicity of nature. He also knew that playing with nature can have serious consequences.Australia hates Ken Todd. In 1935, they were purchased from the US for bio-control. They flourished in the sugarcane fields of the north-eastern provinces. Those farms had an abundance of Todd’s favorite insects (cane beetles and other Australian insects), and fewer were the creatures that hunted Todd. This caused an explosion of their numbers. In 2007, it was estimated that Ken Todd occupies 1.2 million square kilometers of forest area in Australia and has grown to 1.5 billion. This number can be increased by climate change. The result was disastrous. Animals that hunt native frogs, such as the kools and large lizards, die from the poison of Ken Todd. The Australian government and local people kill millions of toads every year.Where did the mistake happen?Says Vaikhais, “Todd was left contrary to the scientific suggestions of the time. It should not have been done at all. It is impossible to do so in modern biocontrol. You cannot leave predators with multivariate, bone. It’s strictly forbidden. ” This is not the case alone. There are at least 10 such examples.In the Second World War, Japan and its tributaries released mosquito-larval fish in the islands of the Pacific to protect their soldiers from malaria. These small fish are now invasive species in that area